Threat and Error Management (TEM)

Threat management is managing your future. Error management is managing your past.”   

Don Gunther, Continental Airlines


29% of flights had a threat that was mismanaged and led to some form of crew error (Helmreich et al, 2005).

Goals of threat and error management (TEM):

1. To create awareness and understanding of the risks and hazards.

2. To detect and warn of the presence of abnormal conditions or imminent dangers.

3. To protect people and the environment from injury and damage.

4. To recover from abnormal conditions and to restore the system to a safe state.

5. To contain the results of abnormal conditions or hazards.

6. To enable the potential victims to escape abnormal conditions or hazards.


The five most frequently observed non-technical skill sassociated with threat events where one or more errors occurred were:

1.      Vigilance                                       (46.8%)

2.      Monitoring and Cross-Check           (44.8%)

3.      Problem Identification                    (36.4%)

4.      Workload Management                  (20.2%)

5.      Automation Management               (19.7%)


Accordingly, poor performance in these markers forms a key indicator of mis-managed threats.

Threat and error management (TEM) is a major safety process in aviation.

TEM consists of detecting, avoiding or trapping threats and errors that challenge safe operations. Where threats and errors are not contained, the resulting conditions must be managed and their adverse effects reduced.

Having completed this TEM course, participants will be able to:

Treat and Error Course Content


This course is a dynamic and practical, suitable for all levels of training professionals no matter your experience.